Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)
Developed by Thomas Saaty, AHP provides a proven, effective means to deal with complex decision making and can assist with identifying and weighting selection criteria, analyzing the data collected for the criteria and expediting the decision-making process.
Is a product that is visible once the vehicle is completed. Certain customers will identify appearance items on the engineering drawings. In these cases, special approval for appearance (color, grain, texture, etc.) is required prior to production part submissions.
Synonymous with the term Reliability Apportionment, which is the assignment of reliability goals from system to subsystem in such a way that the whole system will have the required reliability.
Is an engineering drawing signed by the engineer and released through the customer's system.
Approved Materials are materials governed either by industry standard specifications (e.g., SAE, ASTM, DIN, ISO) or by customer specifications.
Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) is a structured method of defining and establishing the steps necessary to assure that a product satisfies the customer.
An evaluation process including a document review, an on-site audit and an analysis and report. Customers may also include a self-assessment, internal audit results and other materials in the assessment.
Assignable Cause (or Special Cause)a source of variation which is non-random.
Atari mae hinshitsu (japanese term)
taken for granted quality
The property a unit has of being either bad or good. That is, the quality characteristic of a unit is either within the specified requirements or it is not.
Attributes data are qualitative data that can be counted for recording and analysis. Examples include the presence or absence of a required label, the installation of all required fasteners. Attributes data are not acceptable for production part submissions unless variables data cannot be obtained. The control charts based on attribute data are percent chart, number of affected units chart, count chart, count-per-unit chart, quality score chart, and demerit chart.
An independent review conducted to compare some aspect of quality performance with a standard for that performance. (Juran, Quality Control Handbook)
Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ)
The expected average quality level of outgoing product for a given value of incoming product quality. Click here for more.
Average Outgoing Quality Limit(AOQL)
The maximum average outgoing quality over all possible levels of incoming quality for a given acceptance sampling plan and disposal specification.
The A3 report is a tool used for problem solving in the course of work. The name "A3" describes the size of paper on which the report is written. The steps of the report include identifying a problem, understanding the current condition, determining the root cause, developing a target condition, implementation plan, and follow-up plan. These steps are all written and drawn (not typed) out on a single piece of A3 paper. Click here for more - A3 Thinking; A3 - The Basic Problem Solving Tool/a> & Toyota's Secret: The A3 Report from MITSloan Management Review .