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Sangen Shugi
Experience it!

Seiri (sort), Seiton (set in order), Seiso (shine), Seiketsu (standardize), Shitsuke (sustain); application in manufacturing, in office.

one or more observations from a larger collection (population) - samples need to be random, independent and unbiased.

Sampling Plan
a scheme for determining sample sizes and actions for making decisions. 'The decision, based on counting the number of defectives in a sample, can be to accept the lot, reject the lot, or even, for multiple or sequential sampling schemes, to take another sample and then repeat the decision process'. >>

stands for a checklist that helps the creative process - substitute, combine, adapt, modify, put (to other uses), eliminate, reverse

Scatter Diagram
charts which allow the study of correlation (relationship between two variables)

the relationship between the value of input variables and the variation (rather than the mean) of the output. Where variation changes with the input variable (for example, variation increases over time) then the process demonstrates hetero-scedasticity. Where variation is constant the process demonstrates homo-scedasticity.

(japanese for) delicate workmanship, attention to detail, fine craftsmanship

(japanese for) manufacturability guide list

(japanese for) design-procedure document

System Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. FMEA form

Shainin System
a proprietary problem solving methodology developed by Dorian Shainin, Shainin System is widely used in the manufacturing sector. Shainin LLC (a consulting company founded by D Shainin) offers this system under "Red X"® Strategy. The System was developed for and is best suited to problem solving on operating, medium to high volume processes where data is available and intervention into the process is difficult. The fundamental tenet of Shainin System is that, in any problem, there is a dominant cause (Red X) of variation in the process output that defines the problem. This presumption is based on an application of the Pareto principle to the causes of variation. Within the Shainin System, there is recognition that there maybe a second or third large cause (called the Pink X & Pale Pink X). For more elaborate review of the system, read "An Overview of the Shainin System for Quality Improvement, Stefan H. Steiner and R. Jock MacKay, University of Waterloo Waterloo, N2L 3G1 Canada, John S. Ramberg, Consultant, Pagosa Springs, CO 81147".

changes over time - data typically shifts 1.5 sigma levels (a key measure of process capability) between short-term and long-term.

Significant Characteristics
Product and process characteristics designated by the customer, including governmental regulatory and safety, and/or selected by the supplier through knowledge of the product and process.

The practice of mimicking some or all of the behavior of one system with a different, dissimilar system.

Simultaneous Engineering
A way of simultaneously designing products, and the processes for manufacturing those products, through the use of cross functional teams to assure manufacturability and to reduce cycle time.

Six Sigma
a failure rate of 3.4 parts per million or 99.9997%...

Specifications are engineering requirements for judging the acceptability of a part characteristic. For the production part approval process, every feature of the product as identified by engineering specifications must be measured. Actual measurement and test results are required. Specifications should not be confused with control limits which represent "the voice of the process".

Spider Diagram
A visual reporting tool for the performance of a number of indicators. Also known as "radar chart" this tool makes visible the gaps between the current and desired performance. Charting in Excel from Eastern Mich U.

Stable Process
a process which is free of assignable causes (in statistical control - a quantitative condition which describes a process that is free of assignable / special causes of variation).

is the total variation in the measurements obtained with a measurement system (gage) on the same master or part when measuring a single characteristic over an extended time period. Also known as drift.

Statistical Control
Is the condition of a process from which all special causes of variation have been eliminated and only common causes remain. Statistical control is evidenced on ,a control chart by the absence of points beyond the control limits and by the absence of any non-random patterns or trends. >>

A process of grouping data according to a common characteristic. >>

Submission Level
Refers to the level of evidence required for production part submissions. (Refer to the PPAP manual and/or Local PPAP Addendum)

A major part of a system which itself has the characteristics of a system, usually consisting of several components.

Suppliers are defined as providers of: a) Production materials. b) Production or Service parts. c) Heat treating, plating, painting or other finishing services directly to Ford.

SURVIVAL for Quality Professional
 S Size up the issue on hand
 U Use process knowledge
 R Reach out to the experts
 V Vanquish defensive attitudes
 I  Improve on old ideas
 V Value the customer
 A Assess the changes
 L Limit the scope to the problem

SWOT Analysis
SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. It is a methodology used to aid strategic planning that gained popularity during the 80's. To do a SWOT analysis consider these:
   What are your advantages?
   What do you do well?

   What could be improved?
   What is done poorly by the company?
   What are the skills not covered?
   What are the current trends?
   What obstacles do you face?
   What is your competition doing?
   Are requirements changing?
   What are the current threats?
   Do you have resource problems?

developed by W Gordon (1961), this method uses analogies and metaphors trigger idea generation. This method is based on the fact that the mind is more productive when dealing with a new or foreign environment. the analogous situation takes the individual away from the exact problem at and requires him/her to consider a related problem.

A combination of several components or pieces of equipment integrated to perform a specific function.

7-Step Method
Process Mapping methodology - define scope, document all tasks, categorize value-add vs. non-value add tasks, list internal and external Y's, list internal and external X's, classify X's as being control, standard operation or noise factor, identify data collection points.

U V W X Y Z Acronyms
Food for Thought !
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